Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University

About

Dept. Geriatrics and Gerontology

Professor Hiroyuki ARAI
Associate Professor Shoji OKINAGA

Due to a change in disease spectrum in aged countries, the primary role of geriatricians should be directed to an appropriate management and prevention of 1) cognitive decline and dementia, 2) swallowing and aspiration pneumonia and 3) falls and fractures. Geriatric medicine is an independent internal medicine division that is specialized for management of medical problems of elderly people. Management of dementia constitutes a central part in the practice of geriatric medicine in order to support independence of life in elderly people. The current paradigm of cognitive function-based testing for the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is going to drastically shift to a biomarker-based test approach, a shift that will correspond to the emergence of disease-modifying drugs. In addition, a new molecular imaging technique that visualizes neuronal protein deposits or pathological features has been developed in Japan and the U.S.A. Based on these achievements, the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) was proposed and initiated in 2005. The ADNI is a long-term observational study being conducted in the U.S.A., Europe, Australia, and Japan using identical protocols. The objectives of ADNI are: 1) to establish methodology which will allow standard values related to long-term changes in imaging data, such as MRI and PET, in patients with AD and mild cognitive impairment and normal elderly persons; 2) to obtain clinical indices, psychological test data, and blood/cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers to demonstrate the validity of image-based surrogate markers; and 3) to establish optimum methods to monitor the therapeutic effects of disease-modifying drugs for AD. Patient enrollment in the Japanese ADNI has begun in July 2008. Imaging of AD pathology not only act as a reliable biomarker with which to assay curative drug development by novel pharmaceutical companies, but it also helps health promotion toward AD prevention.


Publication

Reviews & Editorials

  1. Okamura N , Federo-Tavoletti M, Kudo Y, Rowe CC, Furumoto S, Arai H, Masters CI, Yanai K, Villegagne VI Advances in molecular imaging for the diagnosis of dementia. Expert Opin. Med. Diagn. 3. 2009;3:709-716.
  2. Arai H, Okamura N, Furukawa K, Kudo Y. Geriatric Medicine, Japanese Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and Biomarker Development. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 2010;221:87-95.

Original papers

  1. Furukawa K, Arai H. Earthquake in Japan. Lancet 377:1652, 2011.
  2. Furukawa K, Ootsuki M, Kodama M, Arai H. Exacerbation of dementia after the earthquake and tsunami in Japan. J Neurol 2011.
  3. Shao, H., Okamura, N., Sugi, K., Furumoto, S., Furukawa, K., Tashiro, M., Iwata, R., Matsuda, H., Kudo, Y., Arai, H., Fukuda, H., Yanai, K. Voxel-based analysis of amyloid positron emission tomography probe [C]BF-227 uptake in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Dementia Geriat Cogniti Disorders 2011, 30: 101-111.
  4. Furukawa K. At Sendai Hospitals, Victims go without painkillers and food. Bloomberg
  5. Furukawa K. Japanese flee disaster zone as quakes, fires hamper rescue. Bloomberg
  6. Une K, Takei YA, Tomita T, Asamura T, Ohrui T, Furukawa K, Arai H. Adiponectin in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in MCI and Alzheimer’s disease. Eur Journal Neurol. 18:1006-1007, 2011.
  7. Arai H. A comprehensive strategy for dementia from primary prevention to end-stage management. Psychogeriatric 11:131-134, 2011.
  8. Suzuki M, Uwano C, Ohrui T, Ebihara T, Yamasaki M, Asamura T, Tomita N, Kosaka Y, Fukrukawa K, Arai H. Shelter-acquired pneumonia after a catastrophic earthquake in Japan. J Am Geriatr Soc 59:1968-1970.
  9. Ebihara S, Ebihara T, Kanezaki M, Gui P, Yamasaki M, Arai H, Kohzuki M. Aging deteriorated perception of urge-to-cough without changing cough reflex threshold to citric acid in female never-smokers. Cough 7:3, 2011.
  10. Ebihara S, Ebihara T, Yamasaki M, Kohzuki M. Stimulating oral and nasal chemoreceptors for preveinting aspiration pneumonia in the elderly. Yakugaku Zasshi (Review) 131:1677-1681, 2011.
  11. Ebihara S, Kohzuki M, Sumi Y, Ebihara T. Sensory stimulation to improve swallowing reflex and prevent aspiration pneumonia in elderly dysphagic people. J Pharmacol Sci (Review) 115:99-104, 2011.
  12. Ebihara S, Ebihara T. Cough in the elderly: a novel strategy for preventing aspiration pneumonia. Pulm Pharmacol Ther(Review) 24:318-323, 2011.
  13. Fujiwara H, Takayama S, Iwasaki K, Tabuchi M, Yamaguchi T, Sekiguchi K, Ikarashi Y, Kudo Y, Kase Y, Arai H, Yaegashi N. Yokukansan, a traditional Japanese medicine, ameliorates memory disturbance and abnormal social interaction with anti-aggregation effect of cerebral amyloidβ proteins in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice. Neuroscience. 180:305-13, 2011.
  14. Mattsson N, Andreasson U, Persson S, Arai H, Batish SD, Bernardini S, Bocchio-Chiavetto L, Blankenstein MA, Carrillo MC, Chalbot S, Coart E, Chiasserini D, Cutler N, Dahlfors G, Duller S, Fagan AM, Forlenza O, Frisoni GB, Galasko D, Galimberti D, Hampel H, Handberg A, Heneka MT, Herskovits AZ, Herukka SK, Holtzman DM, Humpel C, Hyman BT, Iqbal K, Jucker M, Kaeser SA, Kaiser E, Kapaki E, Kidd D, Klivenyi P, Knudsen CS, Kummer MP, Lui J, Lladó A, Lewczuk P, Li QX, Martins R, Masters C, McAuliffe J, Mercken M, Moghekar A, Molinuevo JL, Montine TJ, Nowatzke W, O'Brien R, Otto M, Paraskevas GP, Parnetti L, Petersen RC, Prvulovic D, de Reus HP, Rissman RA, Scarpini E, Stefani A, Soininen H, Schröder J, Shaw LM, Skinningsrud A, Skrogstad B, Spreer A, Talib L, Teunissen C, Trojanowski JQ, Tumani H, Umek RM, Van Broeck B, Vanderstichele H, Vecsei L, Verbeek MM, Windisch M, Zhang J, Zetterberg H, Blennow K. The Alzheimer's Association external quality control program for cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. Alzheimers Dement. 2011 7:386-395.
  15. Okamura N, Mori M, Furumoto S, Yoshikawa T, Harada R, Ito S, Fujikawa Y, Arai H, Yanai K, Kudo Y. In vivo detection of amyloid plaques in the mouse brain using the near-infrared fluorescence probe THK-265. J Alzheimers Dis. 2011 ;23:37-48.
  16. Yang G, Niu K, Fujita K, Hozawa A, Ohmori-Matsuda K, Kuriyama S, Nakaya N, Ebihara S, Okazaki T, Guo H, Miura C, Takahashi H, Arai H, Tsuji I, Nagatomi R. Impact of physical activity and performance on medical care costs among the Japanese elderly. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2011;11:157-65.
  17. Akishita M, Arai H, Arai H, Inamatsu T, Kuzuya M, Suzuki Y, Teramoto S, Mizukami K, Morimoto S, Toba K; Working Group on Guidelines for Medical Treatment and its Safety in the Elderly Survey on geriatricians’ experiences of adverse drug reactions caused by potentially inappropriate medications: commission report of the Japan Geriatrics Society. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2011;1:3-7.
  18. Kaneta T, Okamura N, Minoshima S, Furukawa K, Tashiro M, Furumoto S, Iwata R, Fukuda H, Takahashi S, Yanai K, Kudo Y, Arai H. A modified method of 3D-SSP analysis for amyloid PET imaging using [¹¹C]BF-227. Ann Nucl Med. 2011 ;25:732-9.
  19. Shirotani K, Futakawa S, Nara K, Hoshi K, Saito T, Tohyama Y, Kitazume S, Yuasa T, Miyajima M, Arai H, Kuno A, Narimatsu H, Hashimoto Y. High Throughput ELISAs to Measure a Unique Glycan on Transferrin in Cerebrospinal Fluid: A Possible Extension toward Alzheimer's Disease Biomarker Development. Int J Alzheimers Dis. 2011;2011:352787.
  20. Furukawa K, Ikeda S, Okamura N, Tashiro M, Tomita N, Furumoto S, Iwata R, Yanai K, Kudo Y, Arai H. Cardiac positron-emission tomography images with an amyloid-specific tracer in familial transthyretin-related systemic amyloidosis. Circulation 125:556-557, 2012.
  21. Kosaka Y, Nakagawa-Satoh T, Ohrui T, Fujii M, Arai H, Sasaki H. Survival period after tube kfeeding in bedridden older patients. Geriatr Geontol Int 2012.
  22. Kanezaki M, Ebihara S, Gui P, Ebihara T, Kohzuki M. Effect of cigarette smoking on cough reflex induced by TRPV1 and TRPA1 stimulations. Respir Med. 106:406-412, 2012.
  23. Futakawa S, Nara K, Miyajima M, Kuno A, Ito H, Kaji H, Shirotani K, Honda T, Tohyama Y, Hoshi K, Hanzawa Y, Kitazume S, Imamaki R, Furukawa K, Tasaki K, Arai H, Yuasa T, Abe M, Arai H, Narimatsu H, Hashimoto Y. A unique N-glycan on human transferrin in CSF: a possible biomarker for iNPH. Neurobiol Aging. 33:1807-1815, 2012.
  24. Kaijun Niu, Atsushi Hozawa, Hui Guo, Kaori Ohmori-Matsuda, Yufei Cui,Satoru Ebihara, Naoki Nakaya, Shinichi Kuriyama, Toru Tsuboya, MasakoKakizaki, Takashi Ohrui, Hiroyuki Arai, Ichiro Tsuji, and Ryoichi Nagatomi C-reactive protein is a predictor of high medical-care expenditures in acommunity-based elderly population aged 70 years and over: The Tsurugaya Project. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 2012;54:e392-7.
  25. Niu K. et al. A tomato-rich diet is related to depressive symptoms amongan elderly population aged 70 years and over: A population-based, cross-sectional analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders 2012 Jul 25. [Epub ahead of print]
  26. Kakuda N, Shoji M, Arai H, Furukawa K, Ikeuchi T, Akazawa K, Takami M, Hatsuta H, Murayama S, Hashimoto Y, Miyajima M, Arai H, Nagashima Y, Yamaguchi H, Kuwano R, Nagaike K, Ihara Y; Japanese Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Altered γ-secretase activity in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. EMBO Mol Med. 2012;4: 344-352.
  27. Tachibana Y, Yoshida J, Ichinomiya M, Nouchi R, Miyauchi C, Takeuchi H, Tomita N, Arai H, Kawashima R. A GO intervention program for enhancing elementary school children's cognitive functions and control abilities of emotion and behavior: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2012 Jan 12;13:8
  28. Kiko T, Nakagawa K, Tsuduki T, Suzuki T, Arai H, Miyazawa T. Significance of lutein in red blood cells of Alzheimer's disease patients. J Alzheimers Dis. 2012;28:593-600.
  29. Kosaka Y, Nakagawa-Satoh T, Ohrui T, Fujii M, Arai H, Sasaki H. Survival period after tube feeding in bedridden older patients. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2012;12:317-21
  30. Tomita N, Furukawa K, Okamura N, Tashiro M, Une K, Furumoto S, Iwata R, Yanai K, Kudo Y, Arai H. Brain accumulation of amyloid β protein visualized by positron emission tomography and BF-227 in Alzheimer's disease patients with or without diabetes mellitus. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2012 Jun 10.
  31. Vellas B, Hampel H, Rougé-Bugat ME, Grundman M, Andrieu S, Abu-Shakra S, Bateman R, Berman R, Black R, Carrillo M, Donohue M, Mintun M, Morris J, Petersen R, Thomas RG, Suhy J, Schneider L, Seely L, Tariot P, Touchon J, Weiner M, Sampaio C, Aisen P; Task Force Participants. Alzheimer's disease therapeutic trials: EU/US Task Force report on recruitment, retention, and methodology. J Nutr Health Aging. 2012 ;16:339-45.
  32. Ohara Y, Ohara T, Ohrui T, Morikawa T, Asamura T, Sasaki H, Arai H. Exhaled carbon monoxide levels in preschool-age children with episodic asthma. Pediatr Int. 2012 ;54:227-32.
  33. Kaijun Niu et al. Royal jelly prevents the progression of sarcopenia in aged mice in vivo and in vitro. Aging Cell.
  34. Waragai M, Yoshida M, Mizoi M, Saiki R, Kashiwagi K, Takagi K, Arai H, Tashiro J, Hashimoto M, Iwai N, Uemura K, Igarashi K. Increased Protein-Conjugated Acrolein and Amyloid-β40/42 Ratio in Plasma of Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2012 Jun 29. [Epub ahead of print]
  35. Kitazume S, Yoshihisa A, Yamaki T, Oikawa M, Tachida Y, Ogawa K, Imamaki R, Hagiwara Y, Kinoshita N, Takeishi Y, Furukawa K, Tomita N, Arai H, Iwata N, Saido TC, Yamamoto N, Taniguchi N. Soluble amyloid precursor protein 770 is released from inflamed endothelial cells and activated platelets: a novel biomarker for acute coronary syndrome. J. Biol. Chem. 2012 Oct 2. [Epub ahead of print]
  36. Niu K, Asada M, Okazaki T, Yamanda S, Ebihara T, Guo H, Zhang D, Nagatomi R, Arai H, Kohzuki M, Ebihara S. Adiponectin pathway attenuates malignant mesothelioma cell growth. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 46(4):515-23. 2012.
  37. Uwano C, Suzuki M, Aikawa T, Ebihara T, Une K, Tomita N, Kosaka Y, Okinaga S, Furukawa K, Arai H, Ohrui T. Rivastigmine dermal patch solves eating problems in an individual with advanced Alzheimer’s diase. J Am Geriatr Soc. 60:1979-80, 2012.
  38. Oizumi S, Kobayashi K, Inoue A, Maemondo M, Sugawara S, Yoshizawa H, Isobe H, Harada M, Kinoshita I, Okinaga S, Kato T, Harada T, Gemma A, Saijyo Y, Yokomizo Y, Morita S, Hagiwara K, Nukiwa T. Quality of life with gefitinib in patients with EGFR-Mutated Non-Small cell lung cancer: Quality of life analysis of north east Japan study group 002 trial. The Oncologist 17:863-870, 2012
  39. Inoue A, Kobayashi K, Maemondo M, Sugawara S, Oizumi S, Isobe H, Gemma A, Harada M, Yooshizawa H, Kinoshita I, Fujita Y, Okinaga S, Hirano H, Yoshimori K, Harada T, Saijo Y, Hagiwara K, Morita S, Nukiwa T. Updated overall survival results froma a randomized phase III trial comparing gefitinib with carboplatin-paclitaxel for chemo-naïve non-small cell lung cancer with sensitive EGFR gene mutations (NEJ002) Annals of Oncology 24:54-59, 2013.
  40. Harada R, Okamura N, Furumoto S, Tago T, Maruyama M, Higuchi M, Yoshikawa T, Arai H, Iwata R, Kudo Y, Yanai K Comparison of the binding characteristics of [(18)F]THK-523 and other amyloid imaging tracers to Alzheimer's disease pathology. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 40:125-132,2013
  41. Akishita M, Ishii S, Kojima T, Kozaki K, Kuzuya M, Arai H, Arai H, Eto M, Takahashi R, Endo H, Horie S, Ezawa K, Kawai S, Takehisa Y, Mikami H, Takegawa S, Morita A, Kamata M, Ouchi Y, Toba K. Priorities of healthcare outcomes for the elderly. J Am Med Dir Assoc, in press 2013
  42. Daito H, Suzuki M, Shiihara J, ilgore P.E., Ohtomo H, Morimoto K, Ishida M, Kamigaki T, Oshitani H, Hashizume M, Endo W, Hagiwara K, Ariyoshi K, Okinaga S. Impact of the Tohoku earthquake ant tsunami on pneumonia hospitalisations and mortality among adults in northern Miyagi, Japan: a multicenter observational study. Thorax 0:1-7, 2013.
  43. Akinori Miyashita1., Asako Koike2., Gyungah Jun3., Li-San Wang4, Satoshi Takahashi5, Etsuro Matsubara6, Takeshi Kawarabayashi6, Mikio Shoji6, Naoki Tomita7, Hiroyuki Arai7, Takashi Asada8, Yasuo Harigaya9, Masaki Ikeda10, Masakuni Amari10, Haruo Hanyu11, Susumu Higuchi12,Takeshi Ikeuchi13, Masatoyo Nishizawa13, Masaichi Suga14, Yasuhiro Kawase15, Hiroyasu Akatsu16, Kenji Kosaka16, Takayuki Yamamoto16, Masaki Imagawa17, Tsuyoshi Hamaguchi18, Masahito Yamada18, Takashi Moriaha19, Masatoshi Takeda19, Takeo Takao20, Kenji Nakata21, Yoshikatsu Fujisawa21, Ken Sasaki21, Ken Watanabe22, Kenji Nakashima23, Katsuya Urakami24, Terumi Ooya25,Mitsuo Takahashi26, Takefumi Yuzuriha27, Kayoko Serikawa28, Seishi Yoshimoto28, Ryuji Nakagawa28, Jong-Won Kim29, Chang-Seok Ki29, Hong-Hee Won29, Duk L. Na30, Sang Won Seo30, Inhee Mook-Jung31, The Alzheimer Disease Genetics Consortium, Peter St. George-Hyslop32, Richard Mayeux33, Jonathan L. Haines34, Margaret A. Pericak-Vance35, Makiko Yoshida2, Nao Nishida36,Katsushi Tokunaga36, Ken Yamamoto37, Shoji Tsuji38, Ichiro Kanazawa39, Yasuo Ihara40, Gerard D. Schellenberg4, Lindsay A. Farrer3,41"*,SORL1 Is Genetically Associated with Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease in Japanese, Koreans and Caucasians. PlosOne, 2013
  44. Mattson N. et al. CSF biomarker variability in the Alzheimer’s Association quality control program. Alzheimer’s & Dementia 9:251-261, 2013
  45. Tetsuro Tago, Shozo Furumoto, Nobuyuki Okamura, Ryuichi Harada , Yoichi Ishikawa, Hiroyuki Arai, Kazuhiko Yanai, Ren Iwata, Yukitsuka Kudo Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of 2-arylhydroxyquinoline derivatives 1 for tau Imaging. Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals 57:18-24, 2013
  46. Harada R, Okamura N, Furumoto S, Yoshikawa T, Arai H, Yanai K, Kudo Y. Use of a Benzimidazole Derivative BF-188 in Fluorescence Multispectral Imaging for Selective Visualization of Tau Protein Fibrils in the Alzheimer's Disease Brain. Mol Imaging Biol. 16:19-27, 2013
  47. Okamura N, Furumoto S, Harada R, Tago T, Yoshikawa T, Fodero-Tavoletti M, Mulligan RS, Villemagne VL, Akatsu H, Yamamoto T, Arai H, Iwata R, Yanai K, Kudo Y. Novel 18F-labeled arylquinoline derivatives for noninvasive imaging of tau pathology in Alzheimer disease. J Nucl Med. 2013 Aug;54(8):1420-7.
  48. Shidahara M, Tashiro M, Okamura N, Furumoto S, Furukawa K, Watanuki S, Hiraoka K, Miyake M, Iwata R, Tamura H, Arai H, Kudo Y, Yanai K. Evaluation of the biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of the 18F-labelled amyloid imaging probe [18F]FACT in humans. EJNMMI Res. 2013 Apr 24;3(1):32.
  49. Furumoto S, Okamura N, Furukawa K, Tashiro M, Ishikawa Y, Sugi K, Tomita N, Waragai M, Harada R, Tago T, Iwata R, Yanai K, Arai H, Kudo Y. A 18F-labeled BF-227 derivative as a potential radioligand for imaging dense amyloid plaques by positron emission tomography. Mol Imaging Biol. 2013 Aug;15(4):497-506.
  50. Yamane T, Ikari Y, Nishio T, Ishii K, Ishii K, Kato T, Ito K, Silverman DH, Senda M, Asada T, Arai H, Sugishita M, Iwatsubo T; the J-ADNI Study Group. Visual-Statistical Interpretation of 18F-FDG-PET Images for Characteristic Alzheimer Patterns in a Multicenter Study: Inter-Rater Concordance and Relationship to Automated Quantitative Evaluation. Am J Neuroradiol. 2013 Aug 1. [Epub ahead of print]
  51. Furukawa K, Ootsuki M, Nitta A, Okinaga S, Kodama M, Arai H. Aggravation of Alzheimer's disease symptoms after the earthquake in Japan: A comparative analysis of subcategories. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2013 Oct;13(4):1081-2.
  52. Seki T, Kamiya T, Furukawa K, Azumi M, Ishizuka S, Takayama S, Nagase S, Arai H, Yamakuni T, Yaegashi N. Nobiletin-rich Citrus reticulata peels, a kampo medicine for Alzheimer's disease: a case series. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2013 Jan;13(1):236-8. Niu G, Arai H. et al. Coffee treatment prevents the progression of sarcopenia in aged mice in vivo and in vitro. Exp. Gerontology 2013
  53. Kiko T, Nakagawa K, Tsuduki T, Furukawa K, Arai H, Miyazawa T. MicroRNAs in Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid as Potential Markers for Alzheimer's Disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 39:253-259, 2014
  54. Ishiki Aiko, Katsutoshi Furukawa, Kaori Une, Naoki Tomita, Shoji Okinaga, and Hiroyuki Arai. Cognitive examination in older adults living in temporary apartments after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Geriatr Gerontol Int, in press, 2014
  55. Miyashita A, Wen Y, Kitamura N, Matsubara E, Kawarabayashi T, Shoji M, Tomita N, Furukawa K, Arai H, Asada T, Harigaya Y, Ikeda M, Amari M, Hanyu H, Higuchi S, Nishizawa M, Suga M, Kawase Y, Akatsu H, Imagawa M, Hamaguchi T, Yamada M, Morihara T, Takeda M, Takao T, Nakata K, Sasaki K, Watanabe K, Nakashima K, Urakami K, Ooya T, Takahashi M, Yuzuriha T, Serikawa K, Yoshimoto S, Nakagawa R, Saito Y, Hatsuta H, Murayama S, Kakita A, Takahashi H, Yamaguchi H, Akazawa K, Kanazawa I, Ihara Y, Ikeuchi T,Kuwano R. Lack of Genetic association between TREM2 and Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease in a Japanese population. J Alzheimers Dis 2014
  56. Kaneta T, Okamura N, Arai A, Takanami K, Furukawa K, Tashiro M, Furumoto S, Iwata R, Takahashi S, Arai H, Yanai K, Kudo Y. Analysis of early phase [11C]BF-227 PET, and its application for anatomical standardization of late-phase images for 3D-SP analysis. Jpn J Radiol. 3:138-144, 2014
  57. Waragai M,Hata S,Suzuki T,Ishii R,Fujii C,Tokuda T,Arai H,Ohrui T,Higuchi S,Yoshida M,Igarashi K,Moriya M,Iwai N,Uemura K.Utility of SPM8 plus DARTEL(VSRAD)Combined with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy as Adjunct Techniques for Screening and Predicting Dementia due to Alzheimer’s Disease in Clinical Practice.J Alzheimers Dis 2014 Apr 30.
  58. Okamura N, Harada R, Furumoto S, Arai H, Yanai K, Kudo Y . Tau PET Imaging in Alzheimer's Disease. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2014 Nov;14(11):500. doi: 10.1007/s11910-014-0500-6.
  59. Abdullah Al Mamun, Arai H. et al.  Neuroprotective Effect of Madecassoside Evaluated Using Amyloid Β1-42-Mediated in Vitro and in Vivo alzheimer’s Disease Models. Int. J. Indigenous Medicinal Plants, in press, 2014
  60. Arai A, Kaneta T, Okamura N, Tashiro M, Iwata R, Takanami K, Fukuda H, Takahashi S, Yanai K, Kudo Y, Arai H.Pitfalls of voxel-based amyloid PET analyses for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: artifacts due to non-specific uptake in the white matter and the skull. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2014;234(3):175-81
  61. Tago T, Furumoto S, Okamura , Harada R, Ishikawa Y, Arai H, Yanai K, Iwata R, Kudo Y. Synthesis and preliminary evalution of 2-arylhydroxyquinoline derivatives for tau imaging. J Laelled Comp Radiophaem 57:18-24, 2014

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